The admission is the official permission/approval for something.
As alloy a metal is labeled that arose from the merge of two or more metals.
During an audit the performance of a product is determined or checked onto which certain requirements apply.
The banding undertakes several tasks in the cable assembly, among others the marking from individual cores and core groups. The banding functions as protection, because especially for flexible cables it is important that the individual constructional elements show no inner friction and do not stick together. This means the banding functions as a sliding layer between the elements and prevent a core breakage. The material of the banding depends on the use of the wiring.
The bending radius states the maximum degree of the bending of the cable. This ensures that there is no damage on the conductor, the inner and outer protective sleeves, as well as the outer sheath and besides that it ensures that the stranding elements, the banding and the mesh do not shift.
The block length characerizes the spiral length in a closed state.
These transmit electrical signals in special applications and are used in the automation- and process industry. They are distinguished by the single cable that goes to all work stations. That way it achieves a decrease of cabling and at the same time a cost reduction.
It does not exist a clear and valid definition for the difference between cable and wiring in the DIN-standards. However, you can state that cables are located in the earth and everything that is aboveground is a (electrical) wire.
Shipment- or cable reels can consist of wood or plastic. They serve to wind, shipment and laying of electrical wires and cables. The size of the drum depends hereby on the cable diameter and the cable length. The bending radius of the wire must not be undershot.
Cable ducts are plug-in systems within or out of buildings and furnitures in which cables and wires can be laid. Cable ducts are used for protection as well as for neatness.
The term cable harness describes the bundling of single wires as a group. The cable represents the trunk, the bundle represents the branches and the single cores represent the twigs. Cable connections are often gathered in industrial plants, in the automotive industry etc. to cable harnesses.
Cable support grips
Cable support grips (also referred to as assembly grips) are used for the optimum attachement of cables and wires. The flexible wire mesh transfers the clamping force of the grip over a larger distance which causes a strain-reliefing effect. Thus a defective point load is avoided.
The cable connection between two or more participants among each other is called cabling.
Carrier elements can be textile- or steel wires as well as textile carrier elements, which over take the strain relief. Carrier elements can be arranged separately from the cable or integrated into the cable.
In order to recognize the single wires or cores in the completed line they are mostly colormarked. Thereby the wires and cores can be produced with a continuous number coding.
Composite braid structure
The isolated conductors are twisted together to keep them flexible and movable. If multiple conductors would lay besides each other without a twisting, the strands on the inside would be compressed and the strands on the outside would be overstreched.
A conductor consists mostly of copper, aluminum or also of alloys of the metals. They serve as transfer of the electrical energy or electrical signals. The conductor is used as a single wire or as various strands that are wrapped around the core. The thinner the wires of the conductor the more flexible it is.
See „electrical conductor cross-section”.
The conductor resistance is the ohmic resistance of the conductor and is determined through the conductor material, the conductor cross-section and the conductor length. The resistance rises by long conductors and falls by bigger conductor cross-sections. The information of the conductor resistance is made in ohm or Milli-Ohm.
Electrical conductors are connected by connectors. Connections can be formed and separated to an appropriate counterpart with a connector. The difference to a plug is that a connector has more contacts and their counterpart is for instance installed on an assembly. Connectors are surrounded by a casing that should prevent the single contact elements against contact.
Construction lift wiring
These are applied in lifts for the transport from people and materials. For the optimal attachment we recommend cable support grips.
Control cables are multicore cables that regulate and monitor electromagnetic components. These cables are for instance applied in the automotive industry, in the plant construction, in instrumentation and control technology, in the energy transmission etc. Control lines are often applied in heavy-duty environments like industrial plants. For this reason, the environmental demands for these cables are frequently very demanding and need to have a good mechanical flexibility.
Copper ist the most important metallic material for the complete electrical engineering and complete cable industry due to the good conductivity of heat and electricity. Copper can deform slightly and possesses good corrosion resistance as well as strength properties. Copper is part of the heavy metals because of its high density.
In the purchase of cable and wires often a copper surcharge is calculated. This copper surcharge arises from the difference between the value of the copper on basis of the calculated copper surcharge and the value of the DEL, thus the current rate of the copper price.
Copper surchage = (Copper quantity(kg/km) x (DEL + puchasing costs) - copper basis) / 100
Copper certaintly possesses good thermomechanical and electrical properties, though the mechanical properties for many applications are insufficient. Alloying of copper with other materials achieves the deformability and at the same time a higher strength and hardness. The copper-tin-alloy refers to bronze.
A core consists of a conductor (single wire or twisting of several strands) and the isolation material.
The core arrangement depends on the purpose of the wiring and the quantity of the core.
The core colors can be marked through the color codes according to DIN 47100 and VDE 0293- 308:2003. The color coding for special cables vary from the regular core colors.
The protective conductors are solely marked green- yellow. These colors can only be used, when a confusion with the protective conductor is impossible.
The core isolations are on average just a fraction of a millimeter and the surfaces are as smooth as glass. Depending on the specification or the requirements various plastics are used, e.g. polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyurethane (PUR), rubber. Because for reasons of price PVC accounts to one of the most common isolation materials.
Crane wires are reeling cables that are used for bridging lengthy transmission routes. Crane wires can be supported from steel ropes.
Crimping (connection technology)
When crimping, a connection that is difficult to remove is created between the conductor and the connecting element which ensures a high safety. Crimping is an alternative to other connection technologies, such as soldering. Crimping is achieved by a crimping tool or by crimp machines with a stripper unit. At this the core isolation is removed at the same time, a metal cover is pushed over the braid and afterwards crammed.
The cross section identifies the cross-sectional area of the conductor, it is usually stated in mm².
The copper number is the copper weight of the cable or the wiring in the unit kg/km.
The density is the relation between the mass and the volume of an object. If the mass is m and the volume is V, the relation of the density is p=m/V.
DIN EN ISO 9001
The DIN EN ISO 9001 is the quality management standard that describes which requirements the management system of a company must satisfy to maintain a particular standard by the implementation of the quality management. The certification according to the DIN EN ISO 9001 is carried out through a certification process. The process is conducted by an external certifier and completed with the issuance of the certificate. The certificate is limited in time.
Drag chain cables
Drag chain cables are with regard to their mechanical flexibility especially constructed for the usage in drag chains. The cables are moved back and forth through the drag chains in different movement directions and path lengths (such as robots). Hereby the cables are under permanent mechanical stress, need to be durable and highly abrasion-resistant. Drag chains are used to protect the cables from external influences. The failure of a drag chain cable can lead to a system standstill or the whole production line.
In the cable industry big wire- or cable lengths are wound on drums to for example reduce transport costs. Drums serve for winding, shipment and laying of electrical wires. The size of the drum is dependent on the mass- or cable volume, whereby the delivery length is limited. The permitted bending radius of a wire cannot be lower than for the winding.
Electrical conductor cross- section
The electrical conductor cross- section is determined by the measurements of the electrical resistance to the conductor.
Electronic cables are data- or installation cables. Additionally there are electronic cables for the steering-, measurement-, control-, and transmission technology to ensure higher transmission speeds.
Energy supply chains
Components are known as energy supply chains (also called drag chain) that should keep the cable stable in one direction. Drag chains consist of joined support elements that guide and protect the flexible cable. There are open and closed chains, thereby the closed chains are especially beneficial when the unit is very dirty. The cables are attached to a machine part that is permanently in motion. Without the protection of the drag chain the cable would be destroyed quickly.
External conductors are conductors that connect the power source with the consumable resources.
The extended length specifies to which length a spiral cable can be maximally pulled out. The extended length depends on the material of the wiring.
The extruder is a continously working hoisting machine that melts under the influence of heat and pressure plastic granules onto the conductor. The plastic is compressed, degassed, mixed, heated and carried in a homogeneous melt through an in a cylinder one- sided stored rotating screw.
In the cable production conductors with a round cross- section are gathered to a round cable, thereby open areas in the total cross- section arise. In order to avoid these open areas linking elements or dummy cores are added. The fill elements that are located in the middle of the cable are also called central filler. Because core wires are especially strongly mechanically stressed flexible cables and wires should not possess a core wire, but a central filler. Fill elements should not be confused with carrier elements.
The fire behavior describes the behavior of substances and materials in the case of fire. The fire behavior from cables and wirings is distinguished into the spread of the fire and the through a fire released emissons. The flame resistance, freedom from halogen, corrosiveness, smoke density and toxicity of a wiring can be from importance with regards to the fire behavior.
Flame- retardant cables consist of thermoplastic PVC where emerging flames after the exposure to flames burn out by itself.
There are flat cables in the versions PVC and neoprene. They are suitable for energy and control cables in particular on lifting gears, transport systems, machine tools, trailing cable systems etc., for medium mechanical stress and at strong bends in a single level.
A product is flexible, if it can be moved during the operation without affecting the functional capability, such as for elevator cables.
Plastic granulates are thermoplastic materials that are melted in the production of cables and wires in an extruder and are injected into a corresponding form.
A grid connection is known as a technical facility between the subscriber’s terminal and the public supply.
The gussets are the open spaces within a cable that can not be filled with the conductor or core. These open spaces occur as a result of the circular cross section of the cores. To fill the spaces gusset gap- fillers are used.
Halogen-free cables and wires are completely free from reaction- friendly elements like bromine, iodine, fluorine and chlorine. Halogens are substances that contain no salt formers and do not form dangerous compounds while burning. In case of fire no corrosive or toxic gases are released, a fire expansion is prevented. For this reason halogen-free cables and wires are particularly used in sensitive sectors and ensure safety of people as well as protection of technical equipment.
The VDE-HARmonization sign marks cables and insulated wires with the procedure set HAR-certification procedure.
High-frequency cable serve as line-bound transmission of high-frequency signals such as HF- or RF-signals.
The sheath of the cable and wiring can be equipped with a custom- specific imprint in black. However, it is possible to imprint the sheath of a special wiring in a white color.
The impulse is a factor that characterizes the state of movement of a physical body. If the state of movement of a body should be pushed then a certain force is necessary that depends on the mass of the body. Thus the state of movement is characterized by its mass and velocity. The faster the body moves and the higher the mass, the bigger is its impulse. In the cable technology the impulse serves as a signal for the data transmission.
The isolation materials can offer the electricity flow a high resistance which is inversely proportional to the cable length. The isolation material determines the insulation resistance at this not the insulation thickness, but the material characteristics is from importance. Insulation resistances can change through aging processes, moisture, pollution, damage, radiation and chemical or physical influences.
The ISO (international organisation for standardization) addresses the development of international standard norms predominantly in the sector of technology. The development of international standard norms should make the exchange of international goods and services easier and promote mutual cooperation in the fields of scientific, technological and economic activities.
The isolation acts for one thing as a isolating layer that surrounds a single conductor or as a protective sheath to provide electrical insulation between several conductors.
Isolation materials that surround the conductor can be divided into core insulation materials and sheath insulating materials. Core insulations often total up only to a fraction of a millimeter and their surface is smooth as glass. Whereas sheath insulations are significantly thicker and should protect against external influences. Depending on the requirements they are manufactured in matt, silk-matt or high gloss surfaces, as well as different colors.
Lay length (also called twist)
The lay length indicates the measurable length in mm, in which a stranding element took a complete turn (360°) around the conductor axis. A distinction is made between S- and Z-strike. Often you meet in several stranding layers an alternating direction to the lay, which leads to an increase in the flexibility and a better dimensional stability.
The straight pieces at the beginning and the end of a spiral cable are called lead ends.
The composition of the cable and wiring are always described from inside to the outside through design codes.
Machine-control cables are connecting lines or connecting cables for machines of all kinds and suitable for fixed or flexible application and average mechanical stress.
The mandrel is a tool which is used in the manufacturing of spiral cables. It is imaginable as a spine-like metal piece that is used in different sizes or rather sections and materials e.g. metall or as well wood.
The mantle is a closed cable cover, which prevents the components underneath against moisture and against thermal, chemical and mechanical damage and influences. Construction components mean stranding bodies, precisely together stranded cores with everything included, for example central fillers and banding. The application of the outer sheath is the last step in the manufacturing process of cables and wires. The hereby used material depends on the subsequently scope of the wire.
Through the manufacturing cables and wires are equipped with corresponding contacts and/or plugs for the attachement to a electrical device.
Manufacturing is understood to be the production of fully assembled cables. The manufacturing includes the areas of responsibility of cutting, the removal from outer sheath and/or core insulation, the fastening of ferrules as well as the connector assembly.
The copper wire braiding aims at preventing electromagnetic disturbances and interference pulses from the outside to the inside respectively from the inside out. It is differentiated between the screen and the braided shield. The construction of the screen is determined according to the usage of the cable.
The nominal voltage indicates the voltage for which the cable is designed in normal operation. Related to the nominal voltage are operating characteristics and testing requirements.
Ohm (sign: Ω) is a measuring unit for the electrical resistance. The Ohm’s law describes that the electrical current (ampere) directly proportional to the voltage (volt) and inversely proportional to the resistance is. Ampere= volt/Ohm.
Electrical resistance R = Electrical voltage U : Electrical current I
In continuous operation oils can attack plastics and affect thereby their features. The composition of the oil, the temperature and the operating time as well as the pressure that has an impact on the wire, have an important role.
Outdoor cables are suitable for the exterior installation, e.g. in the earth, rivers or sea, mining, etc.
Outer sheath color
The color of the outer sheath of cables and wirings often depends on their purpose. For instance the theater engineering favors black, construction sides however safety- and signal colors.
Plugs are movable connecting parts, whose contact pins are encompassed from the contact opening can. Plugs are attached at the end of an electrical wire and are characterized by their detachable connection between two wires. Plugs are therefore designed for a fast connection process and disconnection.
Polyamides are through polycondensation gained plastics. They are processed to granulates, bonds, varnishes, foils etc. and are insoluble in common solvents. Polyamides exist in different versions, which can differ in their thermomechanical properties.
Polyethylene terephthalate are linear saturated polyester thermoplastic plastics, which are with a high stress crack resistance stable against water absorption.
Polyurethane (PUR) are plastics or synthetic resin, which are available in different versions. For the cable industry massive PUR-versions are particularly interesting, because they possess high tensile strength, tear resistance, abrasion resistance, wear resistance, bending proof performance and temperature flexibility.
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) are an amorphous thermoplastic plastic. Pure PVC is in the cable industry unusable that is why it is mixed before the extrusion inter alia with plasticizers. PVC ranks among the most common isolation materials due to price reasons.
The sheath material of PUR-cables and -wires consists of polyurethane. PUR-wires are three to five times as expensive as PVC-wires, because the handling process is distinctly slower through the strength and the melting temperature. PUR-wires divide into wires of hand tools for high mechanical stress and in connecting lines for the electronics sector.
PVC-insulating tape is self-adhesive and functions as high-quality insulation. It is used to strengthen, to bundle as well as to label the cables and wires. PVC-insulating tape has a good temperature resistance, plus a good adhesion at high flexibility and is partly acid and base proof. It is produced in various colors.
Quality describes the noticeable state of a product, which is defined with certain properties over a specific time period. The quality can characterize both a product and its manufacturing process. It indicates to what extent a product (good or service) matches the requirements. The quality can be described with adjectives such as good or bad, or as well with measurable characteristics like material specifications, length, weight etc.
The quality management of a company assures the customer a long-term and consistent product quality through improvement and organizational measures to maintain and possibly increase the customer satisfaction. The quality refers not only to the products and/or services but also the internal processes. Thereby the DIN EN ISO 9000 ff as international standard for requirements to the quality management system was implemented.
The REACH-regulation is an EU-chemicals regulation that stands for the registration, valuation, admission and limit of chemicals of concern. Through REACH so called SVHCs were identified as chemical compounds that hold properties of concern – these substances can have severe effects for humans and the environment. Users need to register the substances they use before the application and have an own registration number for these substances. The REACH-regulation counts for all manufacturers and importers in the EU that produce or import substances with a volume of more than one ton per year.
The reeling cable can be used during long bridging operations. This wire is soften wound on spring- or motorized cable reels and in the best case fixed with cable support grips. The main use of reeling cables is in cranes of all kinds, but also in the agriculture, on transport systems, sewage treatment plants as well as winding towers, rail engines and in the theater- and stage technology etc.
Electrical resistances represent an unavoidable disturbance of the current flow. The resistances are measured and stated in Ohm (Ω).
The RoHS II is an EU-guideline that limits the use of dangerous substances in electrical and electronic equipment. This means products and components are not allowed to contain substances above the stated limits that are forbidden in the RoHS-guideline. The RoHS II replaced in January 2013 its predecessor the RoHS I.
The term round cable describes the form of a specific cable. All round cables have a circular cross section, where the individual strands are located around the center.
Round elevator control cables
Round elevator control cables are held in the middle or as well from two carrier elements on the sides. Carrier elements are used for high suspension heights and contribute to an increase of the tensile-strength. For an optimal attachment we recommend suspension clamps for round cables.
Rubber- sheathed wires
Heavy duty rubber- sheathed wires offer flexible installation and are suitable for mechanical demanding applications. The outer sheath of the wire is especially robust.
The screens of cables and wires can be arranged around the single elements in cable- or wire compounds or around the whole stranded bond. A distinction is made between the screen and the braided shield. The construction of the screen is determined by the purpose of the cable. They are used to prevent electromagnetic interferences and interference pulses from the outside to the inside or from the inside out.
The semi strip belongs to the “strip”. Thereby the conductor insulation has not been removed entirely, but a cut in the conductor insulation takes place. The insulation at that point comes off easily and protects the strands against damage.
Semocore is an in our company developed conductor insulation based on polyester. The features of the conductor insulation total to their good electrical as well as mechanical characteristics in addition to its manufacturing components: The insulation material enters no connection with the below arranged ultra-fine conductor organization, this means the insulation lays like a tube above the conductor and prevents damage of the strands. An advantage is that conductor insulations can be manufactured with smaller wall thicknesses and the air cushion between conductor and insulation achieves an increase of the capacitive properties of the cores.
Servo cables pertain to control wires. They are often used to control window regulators, seat adjustments, etc. Servo cables take care of the transmission of the controlling signals between the control units and the respective components.
It consists of a single- core and just one conductor as well as the isolation material. Thus, a single core does not possess any additional outer isolation.
The single-wire conductor consists of a single strand. The single-wire is also called copper wire or braid. The thinner the wire, the more expensive it is. In addition the blank braid (typical copper tone) can be differentiated from the tinned (silver colored) braid.
Spiral cables are qualified for highest mechanical stress and are used, where the quality and long lifespan are highly relevant. Spiral cables find their application in the communication technology, medical technology, machine and plant technology, on household objects as well as on moving parts like robots, lifting platforms and roller doors. Even in the cold spiral cables posses the best recovery properties, which means the spirals return even under continuous load to their original state. They are also an excellent optical and design solution.
The spray head is flange-mounted in an angle of 90°, 60° or 45° to the working direction of the plant at the extruder barrel. The melt is pressed through a sieve disc before the spray head into the mass distributor and evenly distributed. The copper conductor that is supposed to be isolated is guided through the quill that is situated in the spray head. In the spray head the form and the wished dimension are defined with forming tools. The design of the extrusion tools is moreover dependent on the kind of extruding insulation material. The plastic melt is pressed between the die and mandrel and surrounds the insulating head seamless. The final outer diameter obtains the product when it comes through the mouthpiece and is then called core.
Standard wires and -cables are products for different applications, which are manufactured and audited according to norms and standards of German, European or worldwide standards. Standard cables rank among telephone cables, machine-control cables, underground cables and installation cables.
The German electrical association combines science, standardization and product test. The safety of the electrotechnology, the development of recognized national and international norms of the technology as well as the audit and certification of devices and systems build the focus area of the VDE.
Through the strain relief cores, cable and wires should be protected from attached tensile forces. Strain relieving elements could be a steel cable or steel wires that are positioned in the center of the wire or as a mesh over the composite braid structure. Strain relieving elements are commonly used for wires that are constantly exposed to stress for example energy chains.
Stranded wires consist of multiple-wire-, finely stranded or ultra-fine wrapped wires, to ensure an improvement of the mechanical flexibility. The purpose of a wire has a big impact on the selection of the conductor construction. The danger of a cable break is lower than with a massive conductor with the same cross section.
A process, in which two or more elements are twisted helically together within a given order is called stranding. Due to the stranding the cable remains flexible and movable. You can distinguish between layer-stranding and stranding in bundles.
The constructional elements of a cable or wire are twisted together with the assistance of stranding machines. The direction hereby is prescribed. There are various stranding machine types for example double twist bunching machines, high speed stranding machines or planetary stranding machines.
By stripping we are referring to the removal of the sheath, therefore the exposure of the core. Different knifes and automats are put into use for the stripping process.
It is the voltage between conductor or conductors and the earth with uninterrupted operation. The supply voltage can exceed the nominal voltage of a wiring. Here the tolerance range amounts to 10%.
Under SZ stranding the stranding with alternating impact directions is understood, which means that the strands can be twisted together in different ways. Thereby the S-stranding (left handed) and the Z-stranding (right handed) are differentiated. The twisting of the conductors causes an increase of the mechanical flexibility of a cable and it has to distinguished from the twisting of the conductors.
The tensile strength describes the tensile stress of the cross section that needs to withstand a breaking during a tensile test for a certain amount of time.
The test voltage is the voltage with which the cable can be stressed without a change of the insulation properties of the wire. The value of the test voltage is estimated approximately 3 to 5 times as high as the nominal voltage.
Tin belongs to the heavy metals and is used for the tinning of copper wires. Due to its low melting temperature tin is often used as a material deposition to improve the solderability.
Underwriters Laboratories (UL) is an organization, which deals with the examination and certification of products regarding their safety. In order that a product receives a certification through UL the manufacturers need to prove that the safety requirements are fulfilled. The UL confirms the operational capability under certain conditions. The audited product can bear the UL test mark if the safety requirements are fulfilled, or the product is modified. The UL test mark is for a fee. The UL marking corresponds to the VDE in Germany.
The VDE is the organization of the electrical engineering, electronics assembly, information technology and belongs to the independent third-party testing organizations for electrotechnical products. The VDE focuses mainly on the safety of the electrical engineering, develops national and international norms and deals with the audit and certification of devices and systems.
It does not exist a clear and valid definition for the difference between cable and wiring in the DIN-standards. However, you can state that cables are located in the earth and everything that is aboveground is a (electrical) wire.
Zinc is a base metal. In the cable industry galvanized steel wires are suitable for the corrosion protection.